Thus, estimates of overall body size may not necessarily function well as surrogates for bone size (11). This theory had strong supporters in the Egyptological community in the first half of the 20th century, but has since lost mainstream support. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Vertebral fracture prevalence in women in Hiroshima compared to Caucasians or Japanese in the U.S. Overcoming potential pitfalls in the use of Medicare data for epidemiologic research. Widening the focus beyond BMD to consider structure will likely advance the understanding of racial and ethnic differences in fracture risk. Community-based studies may avoid coding problems, but their results may not represent other samples. Structural trends in the aging femoral neck and proximal shaft: analysis of NHANES III DXA data. Aging and bone metabolism in African American and Caucasian women. More importantly, the biomechanical effect of altering the distribution of bone mass within a bone of fixed size differs from that in a bone that is expanding, but the difference cannot be readily extracted from BMD or BMAD. However, many blacks and whites do, in fact, believe in black athletic superiority and that physiologic and anatomic differences between the races do indeed cause racial differences in sporting performance (Wiggins, 1989). of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau (available at http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01–1.pd), Katzman DK, Bachrach LK, Carter DR, Marcus R, Nevill AL, Holder RL, Maffulli N, Cheng JCY, Leung SSSF, Lee WTK, Lau JTF, Cummings SR, Marcus R, Palermo L, Ensrud KE, Genant HK, the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group, Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Carey MA, Johnston CC, Beck TJ, Looker AC, Ruff CB, Sievanen H, Wahner HW, Beck TJ, Ruff CB, Shaffer RA, Betsinger K, Trone DW, Brodine SK, Baron JA, Karagas M, Barrett J, Kniffin W, Malenka D, Mayo M, Keller RB, Nelson D, Barondess D, Hendrix S, Beck T, Genant JK, Gordon C, Jiang Y, Lang TF, Link TM, Majumdar S, Kleerekoper M, Nelson DA, Peterson EL, Flynn MJ, Pawluszka AS, Jacobsen G, Wilson P, Bell NH, Green A, Epstein S, Oexmann J, Shaw S, Shary J, Aloia JF, Mikhail M, Pagan CD, Arunachalam A, Yeh JK, Flaster E, Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Sudhaker Rao D, Nelson D, Parfitt AM, Fleet JC, Harris SS, Wood RJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Perry HM, Horowitz M, Morley JE, Fleming S, Jensen J, Caccione P, Miller DK, Kaiser FE, Sundaram M, Cosman F, Shen V, Morgan D, Gordon S, Parisien M, Nieves J, Lindsay R, Looker AC, Bauer DC, Chesnut III C, Gundberg CM, Hochberg MC, Klee G, Kleerekoper M, Watts NB, Bell NH, Meyer J 2001 Age: 2000. These strategies likely helped to reduce possible biases in this comparison, but probably cannot completely rule them out. The advent of a multi-racial category on the United States Census (5) will likely further increase the number of potential subgroups as well as the complexity of defining ethnic and racial groups in general. Data on hip fracture among nonwhites are somewhat more available, but also suffer from limitations. Bodybuilders and weightlifters were similar in mesomorphy, but the bodybuilders showed more musculature than the bodybuilders whereas the weightlifters showed higher levels of body fat with a significant difference observed between bodybuilders and weightlifters in regard to endomorphy and ectomorphy (weightlifters skewing endo, bodybuilders skewing ecto, as I have argued in the past; Imran et al, 2011). The problem of size differences between the race ethnic groups was also addressed in the SWAN study on BMD by repeating the comparisons in women who weighed less than 70 kg. One of the thornier problems affecting research in this area is confounding caused by differences in bone size between the groups. The different races have, on average, differing somatotypes which means that they have different anatomic proportions (Malina, 1969): This was in blacks and whites aged 6 to 11. In the end, then, while these two studies add to our progress in understanding racial and ethnic differences in fracture, many questions still remain. More work is needed to develop automated, simple methods to assess bone structure. A depiction of a building using this kind of architecture is also an integral part of the serekh, the early Egyptian seal of kingship, and is found before the 1st Dynasty as well in the Naqada III, or "Dynasty 0" period. A prospective study. Based on plentiful cultural evidence, Petrie determined that the invader race had come from Mesopotamia, and imposed themselves on the native Badarian culture to become their rulers. They pretty much argue that stereotype threat is a cause of East African running performance on the basis of two assertions: (1) that East African runners are so good that it’s pointless to attempt to win if you are not East African and (2) since East Africans are so good, fewer people will try out and will continue the illusion that East Africans would dominate in middle- and long-distance running. On the other hand, it may be difficult to decide which of the many ethnic subgroups in the United States should be studied. Archaic Egypt, Penguin Books, 1987 0-14-020462-8, Derry, D.E., The Dynastic Race in Egypt, Journal of Egyptian Archeology, vol 42, 1956, Early dynastic Egypt, by Toby A. H. Wilkinson, pg 15, Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology, by L. A. Waddell, Early Dynastic Egypt (Routledge, 1999), p.15, Epic encounters: culture, media, and U.S. interests in the Middle East – 1945-2000 by Melani McAlister, Heresy in the University: the Black Athena controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. Blacks are highly under-represented in strength sports and strongman competitions. . First, a choice of markers must be made. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Clinical and anthropometric correlates of bone mineral acquisition in healthy adolescent girls. Furthermore, controlling for overall body size may not completely control for all relevant differences in bone size. First, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated. Searching my blog name…, If you have any suggestions for future posts, criticisms or praises for me, email me at RaceRealist88@gmail.com, Black-White Differences in Anatomy and Physiology: Black Athletic Superiority, Dr James Thompson – Psychological Comments, causing differences in somatotype and physiology, Neanderthals were stronger than Homo sapiens, blacks dominate the sport of bodybuilding, Defending Minimalist Races: A Response to Joshua Glasgow. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system in blacks. This is disappointing because it would have extended the comparison to include this important ethnic group, which has now drawn equal with blacks in population size in the United States (5). I also argued that Neanderthals were stronger than Homo sapiens, which then had implications for racial differences in strength (and sports).
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