10.2 km from 236, 505–523. A completeness analysis of the National Seismic Network of Italy. doi:10.1785/0220190024, Presti, D., Troise, C., and De Natale, G. (2004). Both representations show significant variations of vertical displacements on the territory of southern Calabria, with the eastern side of this area uplifting with respect to the western one at a rate of 1–2 mm/yr. 200 (2), 969–985. “A tomographic view on western Mediterranean geodynamics,” in The TRANSMED Atlas. doi:10.1002/2015tc003898, Hollenstein, C., Kahle, H. G., Geiger, A., Jenny, S., Goes, S., and Giardini, D. (2003). J. Int. (2013) using 2.5–14 years long position time series from more than 800 continuous GPS stations of several networks operating in the Euro-Mediterranean and African regions (see Supplementary Table S1 of Serpelloni et al., 2013). Geofisc. Res. (2017) stated that the 1905 earthquake originated at 35–55 km depth in the Tyrrhenian offshore of Calabria (epicenter location 4c in Figure 1) and was due to rupture in the elbow zone of the subducting slab occurring on a nearly vertical plane parallel to the subduction trench orientation (Figure 2B). J. Int. Articles, September 10–15, 2000 (European Seismological Commission), Commission for the Geological Map of the World, (Rome: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)), Strong Earthquake Activity of Southern Calabria, https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.579846, http://www.esc-web.org/the-esc-general-assembly/164-xxvii-lisbon-portugal.html, https://emidius.mi.ingv.it/CPTI15-DBMI15/. (2017), with modifications, is reported in the inset of this figure]. 36.2 km from Terra. Geofisc. Near the epicenter the ground shaking was so intense that people were knocked off their feet and heavy stones were found to be dislodged and upturned. Subduction and slab detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian region. It can also be speculated that the long period of completeness of the historical catalog of Italian earthquakes (estimated to be of the order of 7 and 5 centuries for M7 and M6 earthquakes, respectively; Stucchi et al., 2011) may, at some extent, weaken the hypothesis of enduring interseismic locking on the CSI. Solid Earth. For the same earthquake, the DISS catalog (DISS Working Group, 2018) reports a NE-trending SE-dipping fault with top located a couple of km beneath the Sicilian coast of the Straits (Figure 1) mainly derived by work of Valensise (1988) and Valensise and Pantosti (1992). On the forces that drive and resist deformation of the south-central Mediterranean: a mechanical model study. , This earthquake was the weakest of the sequence and caused relatively little damage. Chiarabba, C., and Palano, M. (2017). Assessing the seismic coupling of shallow continental faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimates: a case-study from Italy. Geofis. The Calabrian Arc: three-dimensional modelling of the subduction interface. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2013.06.016, Lucente, F. P., Chiarabba, C., Cimini, G. B., and Giardini, D. (1999). Bull. (2017) as more conservative estimates of hypocenter uncertainty in the present study. Figure 5 shows the horizontal strain rate in Italy estimated by Palano (2015) using global positioning system (GPS) data collected between 1994 and 2013. Pagliarelle AA′ approximately indicates the NW-SE profile used for the cross-section sketch view of Figure 2. Geosy. Epicenter at 39.515, 14.377 FIGURE 2. at 08:26 May 11, 2015 UTC, Location: Epicenter at 39.092, 17.211 at 21:35 August 17, 2019 UTC, Location: New earthquake data in the Calabrian subduction zone, Italy, suggest revision of the presumed dynamics in the upper part of the subducting slab. Although Dolomieu did not understand the origin of the earthquakes at the time, his accurate observations throw definitive light on surface deformation. doi:10.1038/nature17632, Keywords: earthquakes, geodetic strain, geodynamics, southern Calabria, Italy, Citation: Neri G, Orecchio B, Scolaro S and Totaro C (2020) Major Earthquakes of Southern Calabria, Italy, Into the Regional Geodynamic Context. Soc. Rovida, A., Locati, M., Camassi, R., Lolli, B., and Gasperini, P. (2019). 4a–c in Figure 1 and Table 1) is even more debated: i) epicenter location onshore in the Capo Vaticano promontory area (4a in Figure 1) or offshore in the Tyrrhenian sea (4b and 4c, same figure); ii) depth estimates in the upper crust of the overriding plate (in the case of locations 4a and 4b) or at the top of the Ionian subducting slab (4c); iii) magnitude values between 6.7 and 7.5 (DISS Working Group, 2018, and references therein). (2017, 2019) have focused on the dynamics of the Ionian subducting slab and proposed a revision of the traditional view of down-dip compression throughout the whole slab. Geophys. The inset displays the values of vertical displacement rates along the profile MM′ perpendicular to southern Calabria. We have said in a previous section that the strong shallow earthquakes of December 28, 1908 and February 5, 1783 and February 7, 1783 can be imputed to NE-trending normal fault systems located closely west of the chain, i.e., the Messina Straits, Gioia Basin, and Mesima Valley fault systems (S, B, and V in Figure 1). The values of seismic strain rate have been estimated on a 0.2° × 0.2° grid by using the approach proposed by Jimenez-Munt et al. Diamante The dynamics of back-arc extension: an experimental approach to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Seismogenic stress inversion of recent earthquake fault plane solutions (Neri et al., 2004; Neri et al., 2005; Totaro et al., 2016) and analyses of geostructural data (Tortorici et al., 1995) provided evidence that these fault systems are subjected to a relatively uniform extensional stress regime with a nearly NW-SE orientation of the minimum compressive stress σ3. Database of potential sources for earthquakes larger than M 5.5 in Italy. Eos Trans. In the present study, we are going i) to examine data of historical and recent seismicity of southern Calabria and ii) to compare the main features of seismicity with geodetic data and geodynamic information available from literature. From collisional to rifted basins: an example from the southern Calabrian arc (Italy). Epicenter at 39.316, 15.423 80 Myr and NW-dipping subduction and ensuing rollback are thought to have started about 35–30 Myr ago (see, e.g., Dellong et al., 2020 and references therein). >> (8.2 miles), 2015-08-02 06:58:06 UTC The 2018 earthquake was located at about 60 km depth in the seismogenic core of the descending slab. DISS Working Group (2018). In the background image, two soldiers are carrying away one of the victims. Ann. Seismicity supports the theory of incipient rifting in the western Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean. Sant'Alessio Siculo (2017). (2017) to estimate a maximum moment magnitude of ∼8 in the CSI framework, corresponding to seismic rupture over the whole length of the trench under condition of full coupling. Faccenna, C., Davy, P., Brun, J.-P., Funiciello, R., Giardini, D., Mattei, M., et al. The panel A of Figure 4 displays the space distribution of recent shallow seismicity occurring in southern Italy. Extension in the Tyrrhenian Sea and shortening in the Apennines as result of arc migration driven by sinking of the lithosphere. User’s manual for simulps12 for imaging Vp and Vp/Vs: a derivative of the “Thurber” tomographic inversion simul3 for local earthquakes and explosions. at 07:27 August 03, 2015 UTC, Location: Epicenter at 39.095, 16.695 at 16:57 April 15, 2015 UTC, Location: New GPS constraints on the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary zone in southern Italy. The panel (A) shows the epicentral map of earthquakes of magnitude M ≥ 3.0 which occurred at depth less than 30 km in southern Italy between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2020. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246x.2007.03642.x, Presti, D., Totaro, C., Neri, G., and Orecchio, B. All the earthquakes in this sequence are thought to be linked by a process of triggering caused by stress redistribution following each individual event. Finally, the earthquake of March 28, 1783 (no. , The earthquake is thought to have involved rupturing of the southern segment of the Serre fault that bounds the Mesima Basin. (10.2 miles), 2015-11-26 15:35:54 UTC Map of geodetic horizontal strain rate in Italy reproduced from Palano (2015). Geophys. (24.2 miles), 2019-08-17 21:35:13 UTC Crotone , The earthquake is thought to have involved rupturing of the northern segment of the Serre fault.
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